In the context of world language courses, perception taps into reading and listening comprehension. Students who encounter difficulties with perception often struggle to “assign meaning to audio and visual stimuli” (p. 19). Processing involves all four communicative domains: speaking, writing, listening, and reading. Students with recall or memory issues often struggle with processing, as they are unable to “decipher, organize, and store previous and current stimuli” (p. 20). Processing difficulties often lead to challenges with expression, and a student who struggles with processing the language might also have difficulty expressing themselves in oral or written form.